Zambrano, María

Zambrano, María
b. 1904, Vélez-Málaga; d. 1991, Madrid
   In 1988, Zambrano became the first woman and first philosopher to receive the Cervantes Prize. Influenced by her father, a noted liberal pedagogue and socialist thinker, she lived from childhood at the centre of educational reform, later obtaining her doctorate with Spain's major philosophers— José Ortega y Gasset, Xavier Zubiri, Manuel García Morente—and participating in pro-Republican political activities which inspired her first book, Horizonte del liberalismo (Horizons of Liberalism). Later works emphasize "pure" philosophical inquiry rather than politics, but she remained true to the ideals of pacifism, humanitarian socialism and freedom. Los intelectuales en el drama de España (Intellectuals in Spain's Drama) is partly autobiographical, but forty-five years of post-war exile leave little imprint on her writing. Even such wartime works as Pensamiento y poesía en la vida española (Thought and Poetry in Spanish Life) and Filosofía y poesía (Philosophy and Poetry) reflect little of contemporary reality, but seek to elucidate similarities and differences between the two genres: she envisages philosophy as search and method, poetry as encounter. La agonía de Europa (Europe's Agony) does, however, reflect the global crisis of WWII. Hacia un saber sobre el alma (Towards Knowledge of the Soul) initiates lifelong metaphysical preoccupations, pursued in El hombre y lo divino (Humanity and the Divine), where she applies the method of "poetic reason" (her modification of Ortega y Gasset's "vital reason") to elucidating religious experience. Zambrano commented that the title "Humanity and the Divine" would aptly suit her complete work. Especially significant are dreams, viewed in El sueño creador (Creative Dreaming) as pregnant with creative potential and revelatory of time's origins. Her theory of dreams reappears in España, sueño y verdad (Spain, Dream and Truth) which pursues connections between dreams and metaphysical time, reviving Baroque concepts of life as dream, death as awakening. Claros del bosque (Clearings in the Forest) treats themes of being, presence and reality, concealment and revelation, immanent knowledge and passive epiphany, united by ontological seeking.
   In 1981, Zambrano received the Prince of Asturias Prize for Literature, and following an honorary doctorate from the University of Málaga, established her residence in Madrid in 1984. Persona y democracies (Person and Democracy), contrasting individual and collectivity, and De la Aurora (Concerning Dawn), among the more significant works of her final years, continue the quest for knowledge metaphorically and poetically as she moves towards mystic passivity, emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual over the analytical, revelation over reason, ultimately closer to Unamuno than to Ortega y Gasset.
   See also: philosophy
   Further reading
   - Abellán, J.L. (1967) "María Zambrano: La “razón poética” en marcha", in Filosofía española en América (1936-1966), Madrid: Guadarrama, pp. 169–89 (discussion by a leading critic of Zambrano's place among exiled philosophers, "poetic reason" and connections with Ortega y Gasset).
   - Donahue, D. (1993) "National History as Autobiography: María Zambrano's Delirio y destino", Monographic Review 9: 116–24 (discussion of Zambrano's lyric memoir of her involvement at age 20 with the Republican intellectual scene).
   - Johnson, R. (1998) "The Context and Achievement of Delirium and Destiny", in M.Zambrano, Delirium and Destiny. A Spaniard in her Twenties, trans. C. Maier, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998, pp. 215–35.
   —— (1996) "María Zambrano's Theory of Literature as Knowledge and Contingency",
   - Hispania 79, 2 (1996): 215–21. Marí, A. (1989) "Poesía y verdad", Insula 44, 509: 1–2 (studies her treatment of truth and relationship to antecedents in Ortega y Gasset).
   - Ortega Muñoz, J.F., (ed.) (1982) María Zambrano o la metafísica recuperada, Vélez Málaga: Delegación de Cultura (a collection of critical tributes to Zambrano published by the government of her native city).
   - Pérez, J. (1999) "La razón de la sinrazón: Unamuno, Machado and Ortega in the thought of María Zambrano", Hispania 82, 4 (1999): 58–67.

Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture. 2013.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Zambrano, María — ► (1907 91) Escritora española. Escribió fundamentalmente ensayo: Filosofía y poesía (1939), El sueño creador(1965) y De la aurora (1986). En general, abordan la filosofía, la meditación nacional vista desde el exilio y un entrever poético que le …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • María Zambrano — Alarcón (April 22, 1904, Vélez Málaga – February 6, 1991, Madrid) was a Spanish essayist and philosopher. Zambrano studied under and was influenced by José Ortega y Gasset and went on to teach Metaphysics at Madrid University from 1931 to 1936.… …   Wikipedia

  • Maria Zambrano — María Zambrano María Zambrano dans les années 1920. María Zambrano Alarcón (Vélez Málaga, 22 avril, 1904, – Madrid 6 février, 1991) est une philosophe et essayiste espagnole …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Zambrano — zambrano. m. Hond. barajo. * * * Zambrano, Juan Luis Zambrano, María …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • María Zambrano — Para la estación de ferrocarril de Málaga, véase Estación de Málaga María Zambrano. María Zambrano en los años 1920. María Zambrano Alarcón (Vélez Málaga, España, 22 de abril de 1904 – Madrid, 6 de febrero de 1991) fue una filósofa y ensay …   Wikipedia Español

  • María querida — La escritora María Zambrano en los años 1920. María querida es una película española dirigida y escrita (en compañía de Rafael Azcona) por José Luis García Sánchez, y protagonizada por Pilar Bardem, en 2004. Contenido …   Wikipedia Español

  • María Zambrano — in den 20er Jahren María Zambrano Alarcón (* 22. April 1904 in Vélez Málaga, Spanien; † 6. Februar 1991 in Madrid) war eine spanische (Religions )Philosophin, Lyrikerin und Essayistin. Ihr Werk ist …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Maria Zambrano — María Zambrano Alarcón (* 22. April 1904 in Vélez Málaga, Spanien; † 6. Februar 1991 in Madrid) war eine spanische (Religions )Philosophin, Lyrikerin und Essayistin. Ihr Werk ist stark beeinflusst von ihrem akademischen Lehrer, dem spanischen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • María Zambrano — dans les années 1920. María Zambrano Alarcón (Vélez Málaga, 22 avril 1904 – Madrid, 6 février 1991) est une philosophe et essayiste espagnole …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Zambrano — is may refer to: People * Carlos Zambrano (born 1981), Major League Baseball starting pitcher for the Chicago Cubs * Carlos Augusto Zambrano (born 1989), Peruvian Footballer playing for Schalke 04 * Eduardo Zambrano (born 1966), former Major… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”